Updated at: 13-10-2022 - By: Sienna Lewis

In terms of photosynthesis, growing in a greenhouse does not have a major negative impact on the rate of growth.. Since gardeners have control over the environment in their greenhouse, this is possible. If you don’t keep an eye on the levels of carbon dioxide, water, and light intensity in the greenhouse, photosynthesis will be hindered.

Plants rely on photosynthesis to obtain the energy they need to grow. In the greenhouse, if they don’t, their productivity and health will suffer. It’s important to know the reasons limiting photosynthesis and how to ensure that it occurs at the proper rate in a greenhouse.

What Is Photosynthesis and How Can Greenhouses Help?

The process of photosynthesis is a simple one. Light, water, and carbon dioxide are transformed into oxygen and carbohydrates by green plants.

Chlorophyll, a green photosynthetic pigment, allows them to produce their own food. Chlorophyll is a light-harvesting molecule.

Oxygen and sugar are produced when carbon dioxide and water are combined.

Photosynthesis increases food production, which in turn promotes plant growth. In this essay, we’ll go into more detail regarding this topic.

The Importance of Greenhouses

Greenhouses have been around since the Roman era, but Italian noblemen in the 13th century brought them up to date. As a result, they’ve become indispensable in the world of farming and gardening today.

If you want healthy plants that can overcome the challenges of photosynthesis, investing in a greenhouse is a must. Greenhouses are safe, light, nurturing, and efficient, all at the same time.

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Special glass panels are used in greenhouses. Infrared light cannot pass through the glass because of the unique substance used in its manufacture. This allows the temperature to rise while maintaining a set level of humidity.

People grow plants in greenhouses for the following reasons:

  • There is a regulated environment in a greenhouse.
  • But doesn’t allow the sunlight to leave;
  • Insect and illness prevention;
  • Lighting and irrigation systems, among other things, can be artificial.

Before we go any further, let’s talk about greenhouses and their effect on photosynthesis.

Greenhouse and Regular CO2 Levels Outside

CO2 levels in the atmosphere are typically around 340 ppm (parts per million). CO2 levels can be reduced to 200 ppm in greenhouses with sealed glass and normal airflow. One reason some gardeners employ CO2 enrichment containers and CO2 generators is to achieve this effect in the garden.

Increasing the CO2 levels to 1,000 pm will increase photosynthesis by 50%. Remember to keep a regular light level, temperature, watering, and humidity.

When the Photosynthesis Rates Decrease

Increasing CO2 levels to 1,000 pm will result in a 50% increase in photosynthesis. Consistent lighting, temperature, watering and humidity should always be maintained.

  • A lack of water
  • Humidity fluctuates erratically.
  • It doesn’t matter whether it’s cold or hot outside.
  • CO2 levels are low

Overwatering or excessive wind can cause the stomata (the plant’s pores and apertures) to close. Photosynthesis is disrupted when the stomata pores close.

How Will The Rate Of Photosynthesis Be Affected While Growing In A Greenhouse And How To Overcome Limiting Factors

What is the rate of photosynthesis?

The pace of photosynthesis can be defined as a plant’s ability to carry out this process. The rate will be affected by the limiting parameters, according to the Royal Society of Chemistry. Even with one limiting element, photosynthesis will be hampered if this knowledge is kept in mind.

What are the limiting factors and how to overcome them in the greenhouse

Carbon dioxide content, water availability, and light intensity are the limiting parameters. Even the temperature has an effect on the rate of photosynthesis because of the enzymes involved. As a result, the rate will be slower if greenhouse temperatures are likewise low.

Even if only one of the following variables is lacking in the greenhouse, the impacts of the remaining factors will be negated.

Carbon dioxide

You want to keep the carbon dioxide concentration in the greenhouse at 0.1 percent. You must avoid exceeding this percentage, which is hazardous to the cell pH, so you must be careful. In greenhouses, farmers can utilize paraffin heaters for smaller greenhouses or carbon dioxide waste for larger greenhouses to enhance carbon dioxide concentration.

Optimum conditions for photosynthesis in Green house - Biology Notes for IGCSE 2014

If you have the money, you can also cultivate fungi in bags around the greenhouse or run liquid carbon dioxide through pipes. Adding carbon dioxide has no effect if the temperature in the greenhouse is high enough to reduce photosynthesis. Because this concentration is too low for photosynthesis, greenhouse gas emissions are also a limiting factor in the atmosphere’s carbon dioxide concentration.


We all know how important water is to plants’ survival. If you don’t provide enough water, it will have an adverse effect on photosynthesis, resulting in lower yields. However, it is important to keep in mind how water affects humidity, which might lead to fungal growth if it is too high.


The lighting system is one of the things that greenhouse growers add on to. A primary role in photosynthesis is critical to plant growth and productivity. Paraffin lamps, in addition to providing light, are sometimes used by growers to generate carbon dioxide and heat.

Increasing the light intensity in your greenhouse will also benefit your plants’ growth. Photosynthesis will be aided by additional lighting even if there is no daylight. You may even extend the growth season or ensure that you’re supplying the appropriate wavelength for photosynthesis by selecting the right hue..

As a general rule, keep in mind that light intensity is closely related to photosynthetic rate.


As previously mentioned, the temperature has an impact on photosynthesis. If the temperature in the greenhouse does not meet the appropriate levels for the crops, the process will be hindered. Because of this, farmers utilize heating or cooling systems to alter the internal temperature.

Photosynthesis is slowed down by carbon dioxide and water vapor, but enzymes are in charge of the chemical reactions that produce glucose. As a result, very high or excessively low temperatures limit the rate of photosynthesis. If the concentration is too high, enzymes are denatured, whereas if the concentration is too low, molecular collisions are reduced.

Is the rate of photosynthesis affected while growing in a greenhouse?

When plants are grown in a greenhouse, the rate of photosynthesis is not slowed down. For gardeners, one of the most important benefits of greenhouses is that they allow them to control and maintain the inside conditions. You will only be limited by the parameters listed above if you neglect to keep an eye on the greenhouse.

Plant development and photosynthesis will be affected if any of these factors are lacking.


How do greenhouses affect plants?

Humidity and warmth are beneficial to plant growth. To thrive, plants need water, warmth, and light. A greenhouse stabilizes the growing environment by buffering the temperature and sheltering the plants from excessive cold. When it comes to gardening, a greenhouse is like a stove for a cook.

How does the rate of photosynthesis affect the growth of a plant?

Plants’ carbon availability rises when photosynthesis is boosted. Increased growth may or may not be a result of this, depending on the nature of the colimiting factors, particularly the availability of nutrients. Nutrient constraints will worsen with an increase in carbon availability.

How can a farmer increase the rate of photosynthesis in a green house?

It is possible to speed up photosynthesis by:

  1. artificially induced heat
  2. artificially induced light sources.
  3. extra internal emissions of carbon dioxide
  4. watering on a regular basis.

What limits photosynthesis in a greenhouse?

Light intensity, CO2 concentration, and temperature are the primary determinants of photosynthetic rates in greenhouses, as described in the last post. In every given case, one of the greenhouse’s climate conditions could prove to be a stumbling block.

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Why do greenhouses increase plant growth?

Since temperature and carbon dioxide concentration are better controlled in a greenhouse compared to the outdoors, plants develop quicker and better in this environment.


When cultivating plants and crops, we must ensure that they have the right circumstances for photosynthesis to take place before we begin. This begs the question, “How will growing in a greenhouse influence the rate of photosynthesis?” Incredibly good news: growing plants indoors will have no detrimental impact on the rate of photosynthesis.

Maintaining and monitoring the limiting variables like as CO2, water, light and even temperature is the only remaining challenge. Remember that light intensity has a direct effect on photosynthesis’s rate. You can, however, ignore the other aspects, as this will nullify their existence.